{December 14, 2009}   Results, Discussion and Conclusion

The results

In terms of the two respondents that I interviewed were male, their age difference (23 & 35) and environment played a major role in the way xenophobia was encountered and expressed?  Respondent A was from Mpumalanga which is located in north-east South Africa bordering Swaziland and Mozambique. His definition of xenophobia was ‘the fear of people from other countries in your country that results to racism.’ Though he never experienced xenophobia he knew of a Nigerian male who was assaulted by his neighbors claiming that he sold drugs to their school children. Yet he was a hard working, shop keeper and devoted Christian.

 Currently the xenophobia attacks in south Africa have subsided but in the beginning of May 2008. There was an outbreak of “Xenophobic attacks”. Xenophobic attack is a term that refers to any kind of attack, physical or emotional. A couple of months ago people from Johannesburg started these attacks and they spread through the country’s five of nine provinces. These provinces in no particular order were Gauteng, North West, Limpopo, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga. The common theme about these five provinces is that, they have resort areas attracting both local and international persons during the summer.

The economy was affected when the communal settlers  recognized businesses to be owned by people that were not of South African nationality.  Most of these “foreigners” business men and women who had managed to assimilate into the communities were being extoted.Hence, most of their property was either  stolen or burnt down. After the foreigners were evicted from their homes, the S.A government opened “refuge” camps in order to provide them with food, water and other necessities. The funds to provide basic necessities came from the government and donations from large companies for example, MTN( communication company). In a way these companies were giving back to the community.

Ever since respondent A, came for the fall semester he hasn’t kept up with the attacks especially the effects of xenophobia to their economy. Even though he believes that there is a relation between the economic effects of xenophobia and his academic status. His belief is that, if the economy goes down then prices go up. And as a student it becomes difficult to maintain the amount of resources needed for each course taken each term because the government would decrease its budget on education, implying that study funds are lowered while universities increase their fees. Therefore their own personal funds wouldn’t be able to sustain them.

The change brought about by the economic situation due to xenophobia is his fear of what goes around comes around. As he has observed the difficulties in traveling to South Africa’s neighboring countries. The neighboring countries have increased their border control on foreigners and the visa requirements have increased but for Zimbabweans to enter South Africa their visa requirements have reduced. Respondent A felt that it is important for him to be well informed about xenophobia because of his personal interest for a better South Africa and its racial history (from apartheid to the present) that would evolve to a positive being. But seeing that it would not happen soon its better to find solutions and dwell with what is at hand.

Respondent B was from Mafikeng a small town near the border of South Africa and Botswana. His definition of xenophobia is a ‘feeling of dislike for those who are different from you’.

He experienced it in Indiana when he was walking towards Martin’s last semester; I am about ten meters away from one elderly couple who have just finished putting their grocery items into the car trunk. The old lady who was already opening the passenger door cautions her husband as I approach: “Watch your back! Watch your back!” and then I remembered that by the way, I am black, and for them, this means I am dangerous and violent. In South Africa he has a sister who worked in one of the xenophobic camps situated in Johannesburg. She spoke of a Mozambiquean male who had survived brutal assaults form angry mobs that used knob carriers, knives as weapons to chase him away from the community. Most of these foreigners had their property burnt to ashes and even family members in the process. These attacks were conducted by lower class citizens who had low level of education and unemployed living in houses made of plastics and cardboard called ‘Imikhukhu’.

At present (November 2009) xenophobia in South Africa; the attitude towards foreigners is still there among the less fortunate and politically naive (not all of them) though it does not take a violent nature. But in June 2008 at the time I was preparing to leave South Africa and continue my studies at IUP, there was belief that the assailants were South African nationals who were disgruntled by the failure of their government to provide housing and jobs as they had promised. To the unemployed nationals it was unfair for them to see foreign nationals getting jobs in their country. Who were ready to do any job at a minimal wage, on the other hand foreign nationals are highly educated. For example, I know of a construction owner who is also an architect and has employed Zimbabwean brick layers and designers. His business is booming because they are highly skilled, reliable and faithful.

The last time I was home was in June 2009 and there has been some improvement; especially the construction industry is doing better since they can get better skilled workers who are willing to take anything for a salary. As well as more foreign national vendors who have been allowed to assimilate back into the communities. From the readings and observation xenophobia has had an effect to the economy by reducing the number of vendors and some are operating more covertly. There has been an increase of black market which may also have led to the increase of crime. Consequently, people resorted to stealing as they seek survival. (NB. not everybody will resort to stealing).

The economic xenophobic attacks, personally haven’t affected him but as a student it might have a bigger impact when he decides to go back home and search for a job where there is a lot of competition not only from nationals but foreigners as well.

Being informed about xenophobia makes him think of the suffering of other people and obliges him to take an initiative to educate his compatriots against xenophobia. I think that these attacks defy our Africanness/humaness and are a sign of   ingratitude and ignorance. Our guerillas used to receive aid from the countries the victims of Xenophobia come from.  Hence, increase/tighten border control, protecting foreign business owners from collateral damage; enforcing a new law system that would cater for the lower citizens might improve education system for South Africans. He thinks the economy is affected by xenophobia because the lower class citizens are the majority of the population and are more keen on xenophobia attacks.


The two respondents have different perceptions of xenophobia and their definition depends on personality, what they’re exposed to and geographical location.  Respondent A seems to be located in Mpumalanga next to the border line of South Africa and neighboring countries. In which we would expect him to give vivid descriptions of these attacks and what influence has it had on him and their economy? Seeing that the region he is living in has a high rate of tourist attractions and foreign nationals, he would show a better understanding of the xenophobic attacks.  I would not disagree with him that it is a form of racial discrimination but the grip of the concept seems a bit far stretched. As he mixes allegations and xenophobia, therefore we have to redefine the meaning of xenophobia and have exceptions on what not to include. This is because he is generalizing the fact that as long as there is a foreigner and a national controversy it’s ultimately xenophobia. Yet respondent B might misread the intentions of the old lady, what if she said it because her husband was about to be hit by something, either way she didn’t really specify what she was cautioning him about.  Therefore, assumptions misrepresent the actual facts.

Respond A seems to recognize the crucial degree of xenophobia in South Africa since the attacks are random, then what does it says about the infrastructure and population concentration between foreigners and locals. Meaning, that the locals have the right to blame the government and its institution to let foreigners dominate the land. But not to unleash their anger on foreigners who have good intentions. The major economic effect was when government diverted the funds to cater for the xenophobia victims by providing health care and trying to improve their safety. This is because the victims were scattered all over South Africa and to group them into large groups was even more expensive and risky as the victimizers were well armed. Respondent B, seems to be more keen on what is really happening, because since the beginning of the attacks he followed the due course attentively and currently he observed that the attacks have subsided to the extent that bigger construction companies have managed to hire workers of different nationals and explained to the applicants that its not a matter of national but skill and level of education. By doing this he reduces the risk of having the attacks begin at the work area. Therefore, reducing the unemployment rate and allowing national foreign vendors to operate almost at par with foreign nationals indicating that the government finally decided to respond to the calls of its people and fulfill its promise to them. Even though this was intentionally the increase in crime rate has affected the business industry when company products are stolen and sold on the black market. It damages the brad name of the company as consumers would be mislead to think black market is legal and more resourceful than actual shops.

Respondent B isn’t keen on what happens to his country’s economic status as he overshadows it to generalization because there is a possibility his well off financially and assumes that it won’t affect him as long as he is away from his own country. I might also show ignorance of reality, yet he contradicts himself when he is able to detect that, if the economy goes down then prices go up. And as a student it becomes difficult because the government decreases its budget on education implying that study funds are lowered while universities increase their fees. ? It’s a bit difficult traveling to South Africa’s neighboring countries because I fear they might do the same to me. This might be true, because they too maybe airing their own feelings and views towards foreigners seeing that the leading African country is showing resentment towards them. 

Xenophobic economic situation seems to affect the lower class society because they earn minimum wage which is the majority of the population and if prices rise by a small percentage they feel the pinch.  If government doesn’t provide the same assistance financially they would resort to stealing to make ends meet. The form of media we use to inform ourselves helps us to define the extent to which xenophobia is affecting the economy.


It came apparent that media plays a major role in ascertaining what the economic effects of xenophobia where. People chose to be ignorant about the effect of xenophobia because they believe that it wont affect them in any way even if its financially. Since May 2008, there has been a conceptual reasoning that xenophobic attacks only affect foreigners but in the long run it tarnishes the image of the country and decreases the economic status but improvement is only visible to places where a leeway has been made visible and also attacks were drastic. In this study, economic effects that were identified were the increase in unemployment rate. When the foreigners afraid to return to their own jobs in fear of being assaulted by neighbors who they once called friends causing high absenteeism in the work area. The immigrants who don’t have formal documents cause the competition for housing, jobs because they’re willing to work for a wage below the minimum level. It causes competition for resources such as housing and jobs. This led to tensions in the community. It made the government to diverge its funds into protecting foreigners and abiding to the refugee right to protection.

When the xenophobic attacks began, other foreign countries cautioned their nationals to halt on the traveling plans even if it was business or leisure related. Since tourism brings about 8% of GDP the percentage decreased in fear of being attacked.  

A high crime rate decreases the inflow of cash into the system, which in turn decreases the quantity of products demanded and paid in cash. As consumers would be afraid to purchase new products when after a few months it would be stolen and sold to the black market to someone else for a lesser price than it originally cost. This reduces the demand for quality goods as well as brand names.

Possible recommendation is for governments to create business partnerships between South Africans and foreign nationals in order for them to learn training in the job and develop mental skills for better reasoning. Also to create generation and skills development projects  and to create a set of legal standards and guidelines for all public services so as to legally enforce equal treatment  of foreigners and locals. The major one is to ensure the implementation of existing policies and legislation.

A possible future study could be the impact of xenophobic governmental policies and foreign affairs legislation on the economy as a whole.


{December 11, 2009}   Publishing Research

Kundur D. (2009)   Texas University, retrieved Retrieved December 11, 2009 from


When publishing research 

  •  it should be reproducable and relevant
  • it must be beneficial  to the targeted audience
  • look for publishing site in relevance to topic
  • the criteria  /format used must meet the standards of the  publishing site
  • the research paper must have a detailed outline
  • paper must be peer reviewed
  • work on the reviewed paper
  • submit final draft
  • theres’ a review process by editor
  • results determine the next step
  • If rejected try else where
  • If accepted you work on to meeting the standards more in depth
  • then it would be published

{December 11, 2009}   Drafting and Revising

Drafting and Revising(2009). Waylink. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from


When drafting and revising

  • be prepared to work more than 5 times
  • to ask myself a lot of questions in reference to flow of ideas, organization, relevance to main topic, grammar.
  • have your work proof read by someone else 
  • be prepared to take their suggestions as positive ideas

{December 10, 2009}   blog entry #17

Future plans as a researcher is to take more time in doing a research paper and further pursue my topic in greater depth or research on weather the world cup was hosted by south africa and how did the economy change? As a writer I would be patient with my work and results. My proudest moment was when I was preparing for my presentation and being able to cut down and select what I thought was more relvant and of valueable to dwell upon. Also being able to measure how far I have gone. The first day of class would  always be with me . It is because then I had the choice of choosing to stay or drop the class. In which I was terrified to continue but what kept there was the anxiety to know my abilities and strategies marlen would play use.

The first day of class I was terrified and fearful of what was being thrown at me. All of the information was overwhelming and  seemed impossible. I told myself that one step at a time would make it better but that failed. I tried to make sure my blogs were updated but that didnt seem like I had time to revise and understand. It clicked that I  had to put more effort and change my reading schedule by allocating more time  to reading first before writing the blog. Then life seemed easier because what I wrote  in my own words made more sense than just scheming through for main points.

{December 10, 2009}   Blog entry #16

The Results , discussion and conclusion section was the most helpful document during the research process. It guided me determine how I can connect the three sections together withtout lossing my audience in the process. For example the way I presented my results could be the same way I could discuss them. Therefore, organizing that section wasnt as intimidating as the previous ones.

I believe my second feedback was the most helpful because my whole drafted paper was complete. The paper as a whole had more direction and it was now a matter of focusing on one voice through out the paper and being able to edit the whole paper without questioning the end result.  The peer viewers had a more sense of what to look for in particular as they had done it once before. However they were more strict and accounting to every little detailin more depth. It made me question my origional organization of my paper and how I would present it.

The most difficult drafting process was editing my introduction because for every additonal source I included I had to make sure it went along with the thesis statement and having th ability to forecast  the paper.  Because the introduction was the firstsection any reader would read and to hook them in by the first few lines made me restrucure over a hundred times. The easiest was the discussion becasue now I could write what I thought in comparison to my results and literature review rather than restricting my self to the evidence I used in the previous sections. In my final draft I believe  discussion section shows my ability as a writer.

{December 4, 2009}   Blog #26

As we are currently watching Henry and June, there are archetypal characters I have observed  from the actors. For example Anais plays the role of an orphan who always seeks for more inspiration to write about her book.  The moment she meets  Henry her sexual desire for him begins to appeal to her. His  every move makes her curious, but when she finds out  he has a wife called June. She wants to know how can that be, but as they get to spend time together as  couples she finds it queer about their sexual anxiety for each for other. June seems striking to her as she appears to be bisexual in Anais mind. This is so because of the way she acts and that was queer to her, as she never met an individual with such enthusiam. The fool may appear to be Anais’ husband as he sees the change in his wifes behaviour but doenst say anything. June appears to be the ruler at the time because she gets her way with her husband and seems to have more freedom than expected in the time period of when the book was written. She seems to have power over her husband Henry.

For my poem theme I choose to write about the feelings I get from Anais’ perspective about June and Henry. She feels jealous about their sexual realtionship because Henry seems passionate about having sex and pleasing his woman. He takes charge and doesnt hesitate.

{December 4, 2009}   Poem #30-lyrics

Henry and June

Cold to the approach

No worry or seldom manners

Unconciously killing my innocence

Of truth and honesty, admiring your right

But molding Anais’ desire

{December 4, 2009}   Poem #29- limericks

The Obscure Object

Stood beyond my own fragrance

Olively pure and obriant

Pruning statutes

 I Obediently abiding

{November 21, 2009}   Poem #28

Epic Poem-theme about the characters who made Calliopine understand her nature


Bob Presto never meant you harm

Even though he sounded aggressive

Your basic instinct cheered you on, not to trust

Now that Zora is your familiar

You un-shadowed by the chains

That bound thoughts, emotions and knowledge


Your not alone

Cal is your true identity

Calliopine is your childhood memory

Charmed by the druggy

Its hard not to be submissive

Home is where Zora is, after narrow minded encounters

I wonder if your ready to return home




{November 20, 2009}   Blog entry #25


  • A novel /written work whose subject is the moral, psychological, and intellectual development of a main character.


  • its a  narrative poem, concerning a subject with details of heroic deeds and events significant to self or society

Currently the novel middle sex is a Buldsroman  novel that looks at Greek family called the Stephanides who find themselves suffering the consequences of marriage within the family. The fifith chromosome is a genetic element in the family that makes it hard to identify her gender. In which Calliopine the only daughter of Milton and Tessie who feels was robbed of her real identity as a male instead of a female. The circumstances she was born in werent allowing for her/him to acknowledge that right. In this journey she goes on to find out her family history and the past deeds affected her. By doing so she realizes that it was a long lonely road from her final destination where she finds how cruel human beings can be, especially when they dnt know who or where you’re? She runs away from home thinking that her life is doomed and because of her, the family is suffering. The doctors who want to make a scientific experiment do not know what is wrong with her. Caliopine is the main chracter who changes her name to Cal because she feels trapped as a man in an unindentified body. The emotions she has are mixed because as a man shes expected to watch over her self but as a woman shes taken care of.  By running away from home; her mother becomes ill with worry and doesnt understand why her own daughter wouldnt open up to her, causing her father to act irrationally. She doesnt have the reasoning to think that her actions have consequences and that a new journey is beginning  i.e. self preservation from the  cruel human beings who only think of themselves and what they going to benefit from her whether sexually or mentally.

Her epic side is shown when she met Zora and found out  she wasnt the only one who had mixed ideas about her gender and began to open up to her about her past, journey to san Fansisco and the reason  she ran away from home..  Her threshold was returning home to only to hear of her fathers death and how he died with a heavy heart. Her mother was ill from the time she left.

et cetera